So, I was speaking today with a revenue duty specialist about the definition of products and something came up which disturbed me and it was the EC definition of a modem:
Modems modulate and demodulate outgoing as well as incoming data signals.
This enables bidirectional communication for the purposes of gaining access
to the Internet. Examples of such modems are: V.34-, V.90-, V.92-, DSL- or
cable modems. An indication of the presence of such a modem is an RJ-11
Devices performing a similar function to that of a modem but which do not
modulate and demodulate signals are not considered to be modems.
Examples of such apparatus are ISDN-, WLAN- or Ethernet devices.
An indication of the presence of such a device is an RJ 45 connector.
It seems to me that the definition of a modem is rather messed up and this paragraph is trying to achieve something else than the wording says. If any technology student saw this they would be very confused because WLAN (Wifi) is clearly modulated and so are ISDN and Ethernet to some extent.